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Glossary

Behavioral Targeting
A technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns by using information collected on an individual’s Web browsing behavior, such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made, to select which advertisements to be displayed to that individual.

Blog
A generic name for any website featuring regular posts arranged chronologically, typically inviting public comments from readers. Blog postings are generally short and informal, and blog software is generally free and very easy for individual users, making it a popular tool for online diaries as well as more professional publications.

Brand Awareness
The extent to which a brand associated with a particular product is documented by potential and current customers in either a positive or negative way.

Chat
Online interactive communication between two or more people on the Web.

Clicks
The result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or keyword that links to the advertiser’s intended website or another page or frame within the website. Metric that measures the reaction of a user to linked editorial content.

Client-Initiated Ad Impression
Relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and redirecting content. For organizations using this method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request or later in the process.

Cost Per Click (CPC)/Cost Per Customer
One method of payment for advertising where webmasters hosting the ads are paid a price for every person who clicks on the ad.

Cost per thousand (CPM)
An online payment model by which advertisers pay for every 1,000 impressions of their advertisement.

Cost Per Unique Visitor
Total cost of the placement or application, divided by the number of unique visitors.

Demographics
Common characteristics used for population or audience segmentation, such as age, gender, household income, etc.

Email Advertising
Banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorships that appear in email newsletters, email marketing campaigns and other commercial email communications.

Email Campaign
Advertising campaign distributed via email.

Frequency
The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

Geotargeting
Displaying (or preventing the display of) content based on automated or assumed knowledge of an end user’s position in the real world.

Hyperlink
A clickable link, e.g., on a Web page or within an email that sends the user to a new URL when activated.

Impression
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from a user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user.

Interaction Rate
The proportion of users who interact with an ad or application. Some will be involuntary depending on where the ad or application is placed on screen, so it is highly dependent on placement.

Interactive Advertising
All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, email, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
Standard Web graphic file format that uses a compression technique to reduce graphic file sizes.

Keyword
Specific word(s) entered into a search engine by the user that result(s) in a list of websites related to the keyword. Advertisers can purchase keywords in order to embed ads linking to the advertiser’s site within search results. See search engine marketing.

Microblogging
Publishing very brief, spontaneous posts to a public website, usually via a mobile device or wirelessly connected laptop, such as Twitter.

Opt-in
Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services. See permission marketing.

Page Impressions
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user.

Page Views
When the page is actually seen by the user. Some platforms, like Facebook, cache preview images for applications, which can mean that page views are not counted until a user clicks through to an application canvas page.

Pay-Per-Impression
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads. See CPM.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
The transmission of a file from one individual to another, typically through an intermediary.

Permission Marketing
When an individual has given a company the permission to market its products and services to the individual. See opt-in.

Posting
Entry on a message board, blog or other chronological online forum.

Push Advertising
Proactive, partial screen, dynamic advertisement that comes in various formats.

Repeat Visitor
Unique visitor who has accessed a website more than once over a specific time period.

Return Visits
The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.

Rich Media
Advertisements with which users can interact in a Web page format. These advertisements can be used either singularly or in combination with various technologies, such as sound or video.

Search Engine
An application that helps Web users find information on the Internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of Web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
The process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website or Web page from search engines via natural or unpaid search results as opposed to search engine marketing.

Social Marketing
Marketing tactic that taps into the growth of social networks, encouraging users to adopt and pass along widgets or other content modules created by a brand, or to add a brand to the user’s social circle of friends.

Social Media
A type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional media, which delivers content but doesn’t allow readers/viewers/listeners to participate in the creation or development of the content. Examples include Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

Social Network
An online destination that gives users a chance to connect with one or more groups of friends, facilitating sharing of content, news and information among them. Examples of social networks include Facebook and LinkedIn.

Spider
A program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It is called a spider because it crawls over the Web. Because most Web pages contain links to their pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it. Large search engines have many spiders working in parallel.

Target Audience
The intended audience for an ad, usually defined in terms of specific demographics (age, sex, income, etc.), product purchase behavior, product usage or media usage.

Tagging
The process of embedding unique identifiers into URLs contained in HTML content. Web servers recognize these identifiers on subsequent browser requests. Identifying visitors through information in the URLs should also allow for an acceptable calculation of visits, if caching is avoided.

Unique Users
Unique individual or browser which has accessed a site or application and has been served unique content and/or ads such as email, newsletters, interstitials or pop-under ads. User registration or cookies can identify unique visitors.

Unique Visitor
A unique user who accesses a website within a specific time period.

Upload
To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending email.

User
An individual with access to the World Wide Web (www).

User-Generated Conversation
Conversation initiated by a user.

User-Generated Video
Content created by the public at large, generally not professionally edited, and directly uploaded to a site like YouTube or MySpace.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).

View
Often used as a synonym for “impression.” Any measurement and reporting of a “view” should be governed by the “impression” definition.

Viewer
Person viewing content or ads on the Web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.

Viral Video
Online video clips (typically short and humorous) passed via links from one person to another.

Visit
A single continuous set of activities attributable to a cookied browser or user (if registration-based or panel participant) resulting in one or more pulled texts and/or graphics downloads from a site.

Visit Duration
The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, Web page or website during a single session.

Visitor
Individual or browser accessing a website within a specific time period.